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Weather Act

Wholly Amended by Act No. 7804, Dec. 30, 2005
Amended by Act No. 8221, Jan. 3, 2007
Act No. 8852, Feb. 29, 2008
Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008
Act No. 9771, Jun. 9, 2009
Act No. 10445, Mar. 9, 2011
Act No. 11067, Sep. 30, 2011
Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013
Act No. 11713, Mar. 23, 2013
Act No. 11905, Jul. 16, 2013

CHAPTER I GENERAL PROVISIONS

Article 1 (Purpose)
The purpose of this Act is to contribute to the protection of life and property of citizens from meteorological disasters and the enhancement of public interests by providing for basic matters necessary for the efficient conduct of national meteorological services and by promoting a sound development of meteorological services.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]
Article 2 (Definitions)
The terms used in this Act shall be defined as follows: <Amended by Act No. 11067, Sep. 30, 2011>
1. The term "atmospheric phenomena" means various phenomena in the atmosphere;
2. The term "terrestrial phenomena" means various phenomena that occur on or under the earth's surface, such as earthquake, volcanic phenomena, and other phenomena closely related to weather;
2-2. The term "earthquake" means a natural earthquake which is a shaking of the ground caused by sudden and violent movements inside the Earth and an artificial earthquake which is a shaking of the ground caused by artificial factors, such as nuclear tests and a massive explosion;
3. The term "hydro-meteorological phenomena" means various phenomena (including tsunamis) that occur in inland rivers, lakes, or seas and are closely related to atmospheric or terrestrial phenomena;
3-2. The term "tsunami" means an abnormal elevation of the sea level by long waves caused by diastrophism, such as underwater earthquakes and volcanic eruptions;
4. The term "meteorological phenomena" means the following:
(a) Atmospheric phenomena;
(b) Terrestrial phenomena;
(c) Hydro-meteorological phenomena;
(d) Various phenomena occurring outside the atmosphere that affect atmospheric, terrestrial and hydro-meteorological phenomena;
5. The term "weather observation" means the observation and measurement of meteorological phenomena by scientific methods;
6. The term "climate" means average conditions of meteorological phenomena in a specific region during a given period;
7. The term "climate change" means meteorological phenomena deviating from its average conditions due to human activities or natural causes;
8. The term "meteorological services" means the following services:
(a) Weather observations and forecasts;
(b) Establishment of countermeasures against climate change, surveys on impact of climate change, climate change monitoring, and climate predictions;
(c) Tsunami forecasts;
(d) Exchange, surveys, analyses, and research of statistics and information on meteorological phenomena and climate and services incidental to such services;
9. The term "forecast" means the announcements of prediction based on the results of weather observations;
10. The term "severe weather alert" means a forecast for calling attention to, or issuing a warning of an anticipated severe disaster due to any meteorological phenomena;
11. The term "meteorological instrument" means a machine, instrument, or device used for weather observations;
12. Deleted; <by Act No. 9771, Jun. 9, 2009>
13. The term "meteorological facilities" means observation facilities, forecasting facilities and telecommunications facilities necessary for conducting the meteorological services and other facilities incidental thereto, such as buildings, etc. for the installation and operation thereof;
14. The term "weather information system" means a systematically integrated and combined system of machines, programs, databases, etc. to collect, process, store, search, display, transmit, receive, and utilize domestic and overseas data on meteorological services.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]
Article 3 (Relationship to other Acts)
(1) Except as otherwise provided for by other Acts, meteorological services shall be governed by this Act.
(2) Matters necessary for the standardization of weather observations shall be provided for by a separate Act.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]
Article 4 (Responsibility of the State)
The State shall acknowledge that a stable provision of information on meteorological services is an essential element in stabilizing the life of citizens and shall prepare and implement the following policies:
1. Matters concerning the maintenance of a system for producing and transmitting appropriate information on meteorological services;
2. Matters concerning cooperation between national agencies and local governments to secure an optimum environment for weather observations;
3. Matters concerning the expansion of meteorological organizations, human resources, and facilities for preventing meteorological disasters.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]


CHAPTER II FORMULATION, ETC. OF MASTER PLAN FOR METEOROLOGICAL SERVICES

Article 5 (Formulation, etc. of Master Plan for Meteorological Services)
(1) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration shall formulate and implement a master plan for meteorological services (hereinafter referred to as "master plan") every five years, subject to consultation with heads of the relevant central administrative agencies, in order to systematically and efficiently achieve the purposes of this Act, such as a sound development of meteorological services.
(2) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration shall, when he/she intends to formulate or revise a master plan, undergo deliberation by the National Science and Technology Council under Article 9 (1) of the Framework Act on Science and Technology: Provided, That the foregoing shall not apply to modification of insignificant matters prescribed by Presidential Decree. <Amended by Act No. 11713, Mar. 23, 2013>
(3) A master plan shall include the following matters:
1. Matters concerning the development goals of technology for and administration of meteorological services and the basic direction of policies thereon;
2. Matters concerning the expansion of investment in technology for meteorological services;
3. Matters concerning the enhancement of technological research and development for meteorological services and the facilitation of collaborative research and development;
4. Matters concerning the dissemination of results of research on meteorological services and the facilitation of transfer and commercialization of technology;
5. Matters concerning the establishment and management of a weather information system and the joint use of information about meteorological services;
6. Matters concerning the enhancement of international cooperation and inter-Korean cooperation in meteorological services;
7. Matters concerning the enhancement of development of technology for meteorological instruments and standardization of observation methods.
(4) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration shall, without delay, notify heads of the relevant central administrative agencies of the master plan confirmed.
(5) Matters necessary for the procedure for the formulation of a master plan and other relevant matters shall be prescribed by Presidential Decree.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]
Article 6 (Formulation, etc. of Annual Execution Plans)
(1) Heads of the relevant central administrative agencies and the Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration shall formulate and implement an annual execution plan (hereinafter referred to as "execution plan") in accordance with the master plan.
(2) When the head of each relevant central administrative agency formulates an execution plan, he/she shall, in advance, consult the Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration.
(3) Matters necessary for the formulation, implementation, etc. of execution plans shall be prescribed by Presidential Decree.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]


CHAPTER III OBSERVATION

Article 7 (Weather Observations through Establishment of Observation Networks)
The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration shall establish weather observation networks at necessary places in order to produce information on meteorological phenomena. <Amended by Act No. 11067, Sep. 30, 2011>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]
Article 8 (Operation, etc. of Observation Networks of Weather Satellites)
(1) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration may establish and operate an observation network of weather satellites for weather observations and may collect and utilize information obtained through observations. <Amended by Act No. 11067, Sep. 30, 2011>
(2) Matters necessary for the establishment and operation of the observation network of weather satellites and the collection and utilization of information under paragraph (1) shall be prescribed by Presidential Decree. <Amended by Act No. 11067, Sep. 30, 2011>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]
Article 9 (Requests for Provision of Specific Observation Data)
(1) When issuing forecasts and severe weather alerts for the safe navigation of ships or aircraft pursuant to Article 14, the Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration may, if necessary, request the owner of any of the following ships or aircraft (referring to a charterer, if a ship or aircraft is chartered for operation) to provide him/her with weather observation data: <Amended by Act No. 11067, Sep. 30, 2011; Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013>
1. Ships designated by the Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration, subject to consultation with the Minister of Oceans and Fisheries, among ships equipped with a radio system pursuant to Article 29 of the Ship Safety Act and meteorological instruments;
2. Aircraft prescribed by Presidential Decree, which are equipped with a radio system pursuant to Article 40 of the Aviation Act.
(2) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration may fully or partially subsidize expenses incurred in providing observation data pursuant to paragraph (1) within budgetary limits.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]
Article 10 (On-Board Observation in Ships or Aircraft)
(1) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration may assign public officials under his/her jurisdiction to conduct weather observations or verify forecasts aboard a ship or aircraft provided for in Article 9 (1). <Amended by Act No. 11067, Sep. 30, 2011>
(2) Matters necessary for boarding ships or aircraft under paragraph (1) shall be prescribed by Presidential Decree.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]
Article 11 (Announcements of Observation Results, etc.)
If the Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration deems it necessary to make a prompt announcement of weather observation results and relevant information in order to enhance public safety and interests, he/she shall make an announcement immediately through broadcasting stations, newspapers, news agencies, and other appropriate news media (hereinafter referred to as "news media") or by other appropriate means. <Amended by Act No. 11067, Sep. 30, 2011>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]


CHAPTER IV MANAGEMENT AND JOINT USE OF INFORMATION ON METEOROLOGICAL SERVICES

Article 12 (Establishment, etc. of Systems for Management and Joint Use of Information on Meteorological Services)
(1) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration shall establish and operate a weather information system (including incidental facilities) to facilitate the dissemination and use of information on meteorological services.
(2) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration may request cooperation under paragraph (1) from national agencies, local governments, and persons specified by Ordinance of the Ministry of Environment, which produce and manage information on meteorological services.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]


CHAPTER V FORECASTS AND SEVERE WEATHER ALERTS

Article 13 (Forecasts and Severe Weather Alerts for General Public)
(1) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration shall issue necessary forecasts and severe weather alerts of meteorological phenomena so that the general public can use them.
(2) In issuing forecasts or severe weather alerts pursuant to paragraph (1), the Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration shall inform the general public of the forecasts or severe weather alerts through news media or mobile telecommunications service providers or by other appropriate means.
(3) Matters necessary for the types and details of forecasts and severe weather alerts under paragraph (1) shall be prescribed by Presidential Decree.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]
Article 14 (Forecasts and Severe Weather Alerts for Ships or Aircraft)
(1) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration shall issue forecasts and severe weather alerts necessary for the safe navigation of ships or aircraft.
(2) Matters necessary for the types and details of forecasts and severe weather alerts pursuant to paragraph (1) shall be prescribed by Presidential Decree.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]
Article 14-2 (Forecasts and Severe Weather Alerts about Impact of Physical Phenomena Occurring in Outer Space on Meteorological Phenomena, etc.)
(1) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration shall issue forecasts and severe weather alerts so that the general public can use with respect to the impact of physical phenomena occurring in outer space on meteorological phenomena, climate and meteorological satellites.
(2) Matters concerning the types and details of forecasts and severe weather alerts referred to in paragraph (1) shall be prescribed by Presidential Decree.
[This Article Newly Inserted by Act No. 11067, Sep. 30, 2011]
Article 15 (Notification of Severe Weather Alerts)
(1) When the Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration issues or lifts a severe weather alert pursuant to Article 13 (1), 14 (1) or 14-2 (1), he/she shall notify the following agencies of the fact immediately: Provided, That severe weather alerts for aviation shall be notified to only aviation-related agencies prescribed by Presidential Decree: <Amended by Act No. 11067, Sep. 30, 2011; Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013>
1. The Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs;
2. The Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport;
3. The Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries;
4. The National Emergency Management Agency;
5. Other agencies prescribed by Presidential Decree that need to be notified of severe weather alerts for preventing disasters.
(2) Every agency notified under paragraph (1) shall, without delay, take necessary measures such as the announcement of the details of notification.
(3) Matters concerning procedures for receiving severe weather alerts by agencies entitled to be notified under paragraph (1) and the designation of officers in charge shall be prescribed by Presidential Decree.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]
Article 16 (Requests for Emergency Broadcasts on Meteorological Phenomena)
(1) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration may request a broadcasting station designated as an organizer of disaster broadcasting services by the Minister of Science, ICT and Future Planning and the Korea Communications Commission pursuant to Article 40 (3) of the Framework Act on Broadcasting Communications Development, to provide prompt broadcasting services in cases that meet the requirements prescribed by Presidential Decree, including where it is necessary to urgently issue a severe weather alert, etc. to citizens in order to prevent weather disasters. <Amended by Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013>
(2) The organizer of disaster broadcasting services shall, upon receiving a request pursuant to paragraph (1), comply with such request, unless exceptional circumstances exist.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]
Article 17 (Restrictions on Forecasts and Severe Weather Alerts)
No one, other than the Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration, may issue any forecast or severe weather alert: Provided, That the foregoing shall not apply to national defense cases and where a person who has been registered for a weather forecast business pursuant to Article 6 of the Weather Industry Promotion Act (hereinafter referred to as "meteorological business entity") issues forecasts (excluding forecasts referred to in Article 14-2). <Amended by Act No. 9771, Jun. 9, 2009; Act No. 11067, Sep. 30, 2011; Act No. 11905, Jul. 16, 2013>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]
Article 18 (Prohibition of Weather Control)
No one, other than the Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration, shall engage in any activity conducted for the purposes of changing or controlling meteorological phenomena, such as rain, snow, hailstorm, and fog by manipulating weather conditions: Provided, That the foregoing shall not apply to cases approved by the Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration, as prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of Environment, for the prevention of weather disasters and for meteorology research.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]
Article 19 (Collection of Information on Meteorological Phenomena and Announcements of such Information through Telecommunications Systems)
(1) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration shall announce the following matters collected and integrated with respect to domestic and overseas meteorological phenomena through telecommunications systems so that domestic and overseas institutions that carry out meteorological services, ships, or aircraft can receive such information:
1. Results of weather observations;
2. Forecasts and severe weather alerts;
3. Other information on weather conditions.
(2) Matters necessary for coverage areas and methods of announcements under paragraph (1) shall be prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of Environment.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]


CHAPTER VI CLIMATE

Article 20 (Duty to Endeavor for Climate Surveillance, etc.)
The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration shall endeavor to survey climate, improve abilities to conduct research on climate and forecast weather, and facilitate the utilization of information on climate.
Article 21 (Climate Surveillance, Impact Assessment, etc.)
(1) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration shall survey the atmosphere and climate, collect, analyze, and manage data on surveillance and observations of the atmosphere (referring to observations conducted for the surveillance of the atmosphere on the ozone layer in the stratosphere, concentrations of major greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, and gaseous and particulate matter that affect the quality of air in each region; hereinafter the same shall apply), and publicly announce the results thereof on a regular basis.
(2) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration shall conduct climate impact assessments and predictions for climate change trends, including the development of national standard climate change scenarios, in order to support the preparation of countermeasures against climate change. <Amended by Act No. 11905, Jul. 16, 2013>
(3) Matters necessary for the collection, analysis, and management of data on surveillance and observations of the atmosphere and the public announcement of the results thereof under paragraph (1) and for the impact assessments and the predictions for climate change trends under paragraph (2) shall be prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of Environment. <Amended by Act No. 11905, Jul. 16, 2013>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]
Article 21-2 (Certification of National Standard Climate Change Scenarios)
(1) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration shall establish and announce the standards for national standard climate change scenarios based on the standards of the international organizations prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of Environment to increase the accuracy and utility of predictions for climate change trends, in consultation with the heads of relevant central administrative agencies.
(2) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration may certify the national standard climate change scenarios according to the standards established under paragraph (1).
(3) If a national standard climate change scenario certified under paragraph (2) no longer meets the standards established under paragraph (1), the Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration may revoke the certification thereof: Provided, That when the certification under paragraph (2) is granted by fraudulent or other illegal means, the Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration shall revoke such certification.
(4) Except as otherwise expressly provided for in paragraphs (1) through (3), matters necessary for the certification of the national standard climate change scenarios, including certification procedures, shall be prescribed by Presidential Decree.
[This Article Newly Inserted by Act No. 11905, Jul. 16, 2013]
Article 22 (Announcement of Climate Outlook)
(1) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration shall announce the outlook of the climate so that the general public can rely on such outlook.
(2) Matters necessary for the cycles and methods of announcements on the outlook of the climate under paragraph (1) shall be prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of Environment.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]
Article 23 (Management, etc. of Climate Data)
(1) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration shall collect and manage climate data, produce various applied data, and publicly announce statistics on such data on a regular basis.
(2) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration shall take measures necessary for facilitating the integrated management of climate data, such as building-up databases, to ensure that citizens can use such data in easier and more convenient way and shall endeavor to improve the quality of climate data. <Newly Inserted by Act No. 11905, Jul. 16, 2013>
(3) Matters necessary for the collection and management of climate data, the production of applied data, and the public announcement of statistics under paragraph (1) and for the integrated management and the improvement of quality under paragraph (2) shall be prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of Environment. <Amended by Act No. 11905, Jul. 16, 2013>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]
Article 24 (Establishment of Climate Advisory Organization)
(1) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration may establish and operate an advisory organization in order to promote activities in the area of climate and to systematically cope with issues related to the climate. <Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008>
(2) Matters necessary for the organization and operation of the advisory organization under paragraph (1) shall be prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of Environment. <Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008>


CHAPTER VII EARTHQUAKES AND TSUNAMIS

Articles 25 (Establishment and Operation of National Seismological Observation Network)
(1) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration shall establish and operate a national seismological observation network to observe earthquakes and tsunamis.
(2) Matters necessary for the establishment and operation of the national seismological observation network referred to in paragraph (1) shall be prescribed by Presidential Decree.
[This Article Newly Inserted by Act No. 11067, Sep. 30, 2011]
Article 26 (Establishment and Operation of Geophysical Observatory)
(1) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration may establish and operate a geophysical observatory for the observation, systematic research, etc. on terrestrial magnetism, precursors of earthquakes, etc. (hereinafter referred to as "geophysical phenomena").
(2) Matters necessary for the establishment and operation of the geophysical observatory referred to in paragraph (1) shall be prescribed by Presidential Decree.
[This Article Newly Inserted by Act No. 11067, Sep. 30, 2011]
Article 27 (Notification of Observation Results of Natural Earthquakes and Tsunamis)
(1) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration may announce information on the results of observation and measurement of major natural earthquakes and volcanic phenomena, etc. occurring inside and outside the Republic of Korea, and on the results of observation, measurement and forecast of tsunamis, etc. to relevant institutions and citizens through mass media or its website or by other appropriate means.
(2) When a person, other than the Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration, announces information on the results of observation and measurement of major natural earthquakes and volcanic phenomena, etc., and on the results of observation, measurement and forecast of tsunamis, etc. as referred to in paragraph (1), he/she shall consult the Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration.
(3) Matters necessary for the types and details of information to be announced and the announcement methods of such information under paragraph (1) shall be prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of Environment.
[This Article Newly Inserted by Act No. 11067, Sep. 30, 2011]
Article 28 (Detection, Analysis and Notification of Artificial Earthquakes)
(1) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration shall detect and analyze artificial earthquakes and various accompanying phenomena and notify relevant institutions of the results thereof, and may, where deemed necessary, announce relevant information through mass media, on its website or by other appropriate means.
(2) When an artificial earthquake is suspected or observed, the Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration shall closely cooperate with relevant central administrative agencies.
(3) Matters necessary for the methods of detecting and analyzing artificial earthquakes, subject matter to be notified, and details and methods, etc. of notification referred to in paragraph (1) shall be prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of Environment.
[This Article Newly Inserted by Act No. 11067, Sep. 30, 2011]
Article 29 (Collection and Management, etc. of Earthquake-Related Data)
(1) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration shall collect and manage data on the observation and measurement of earthquakes, volcanoes and tsunamis, data on the observation and measurement of geophysical phenomena and other information on various analyses relating to earthquakes, and shall periodically publish the statistics thereon.
(2) Matters necessary for the methods of collecting data and information, the frequency and methods of publication of statistics, etc. referred to in paragraph (1) shall be prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of Environment.
[This Article Newly Inserted by Act No. 11067, Sep. 30, 2011]
Article 30 (Enhancement of Cooperation with Earthquake-Related Institutions)
(1) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration shall enhance cooperation with local and overseas earthquake-related institutions for research, policy-making, technology development, etc. about earthquakes and tsunamis occurring inside and outside the Republic of Korea.
(2) Matters necessary for those requiring cooperation with local and overseas earthquake-related institutions, details and methods of such cooperation, etc. referred to in paragraph (1) shall be prescribed by Presidential Decree.
[This Article Newly Inserted by Act No. 11067, Sep. 30, 2011]


CHAPTER VIII Deleted.

Articles 31 Deleted. <by Act No. 9771, Jun. 9, 2009>


CHAPTER IX RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS, INTERNATIONAL METEOROLOGICAL COOPERATION, ETC.

Article 32 (Implementation of Research and Development Projects concerning Meteorological Services)
(1) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration shall implement research and development projects concerning meteorological services (hereinafter referred to as "research and development projects") to concentrate on the development of technology for meteorological services, and may select research and development subjects each year and assign any of the following institutions and organizations to conduct research thereon under agreement. In such cases, if an institution under subparagraph 4 has no representative authority, an agreement may be entered into with the representative of the legal entity to which the institution belongs: <Amended by Act No. 10445, Mar. 9, 2011>
1. A national or public research institute;
2. A government-funded research institution under the Act on the Establishment, Operation and Fostering of Government-Funded Research Institutions or the Act on the Establishment, Operation and Fostering of Government-Funded Science and Technology Research Institutions;
3. A specific research institute under the Support of Specific Research Institutes Act;
4. A research institute attached to a company or a department exclusively dedicated to research and development in a company, which keeps securing researchers exclusively dedicated to research on meteorological services, among research institutes attached to an company and departments exclusively dedicated to research and development in a company under Article 14 (1) 2 of the Basic Research Promotion and Technology Development Support Act;
5. A college, industrial college, junior college, or technical college under the Higher Education Act;
6. A nonprofit corporation established for meteorological services pursuant to the Civil Act or any other Act.
(2) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration may contribute funds to any institution or organization that conducts research and development projects under paragraph (1) for covering expenses incurred in such research.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]
Article 32-2 (Collaborative Projects for Joint Use of Weather Information, etc.)
(1) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration may implement collaborative projects for joint use of human resources, facilities, equipment, materials, information, etc. with academic circles, research institutes, or industries.
(2) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration may fully or partially subsidize expenses incurred in implementing collaborative projects under paragraph (1) within budgetary limits.
(3) Matters necessary for the subject matter of collaborative projects, schemes for implementation of such projects, and other relevant matters under paragraph (2) shall be prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of Environment.
[This Article Newly Inserted by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]
Article 33 (Promotion of International Meteorological Cooperation)
(1) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration shall promote the following activities through cooperation with international organizations related to meteorological services and other countries, and actively participate in global efforts for developing technology on meteorological services: <Amended by Act No. 11067, Sep. 30, 2011>
1. Establishment of a cooperative entity in the Republic of Korea for international meteorological services under agreements between member states of international organizations;
2. Climate information services and climate change-related technology development by climate-related international cooperative entities under the umbrella of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation;
3. Exchange of information and technology on meteorological services;
4. Exchange of human resources;
5. Joint surveys and research.
(2) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration shall endeavor to promote inter-Korean exchange and cooperation in meteorological services.
(3) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration may fully or partially subsidize expenses incurred in promoting collaborative projects under paragraphs (1) and (2) within budgetary limits.
(4) Matters necessary for the subject matter of and promotion schemes for international cooperation and inter-Korean cooperation under paragraphs (1) and (2) and other relevant matters shall be prescribed by Presidential Decree.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]


CHAPTER X DISSEMINATION OF KNOWLEDGE OF METEOROLOGICAL SERVICES, EDUCATION AND TRAINING

Article 34 (Dissemination of Knowledge of Meteorological Phenomena and Climate)
The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration shall endeavor to widely disseminate and utilize knowledge on meteorological phenomena and climate for the life of citizens in order to improve citizens’ understanding of meteorological services.
Article 35 (Education and Training for Workers in Meteorological Services, etc.)
(1) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration may conduct education and training for any of the following persons in order to standardize meteorological services, prevent weather disasters, promote international cooperation under Article 33 (1), and improve their understanding of meteorological services: <Amended by Act No. 11905, Jul. 16, 2013>
1. Public officials who perform duties related to meteorological services;
2. Executives and employees of organizations related to meteorological services;
3. Weather business entities;
4. Persons prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of Environment, who are deemed to be in need of education and training for meteorological services, in addition to those provided for in subparagraphs 1 through 3.
(2) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration may designate an institution to be in charge of education and training under paragraph (1).
(3) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration may fully or partially subsidize the expenses incurred in conducting education and training under paragraph (1) to institutions designated under paragraph (2) within budgetary limits. <Amended by Act No. 11905, Jul. 16, 2013>
(4) The standards for the designation of education and training institutions for meteorological services under paragraph (2) and other necessary matters for such designation shall be prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of Environment. <Amended by Act No. 11905, Jul. 16, 2013>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]
Article 35-2 (Revocation, etc. of Designation of Education and Training Institutions)
(1) If an education and training institution designated under Article 35 (2) falls under any of the following cases, the Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration shall order it to take corrective measures within a given period not exceeding two months:
1. Where it has suspended its operations for at least a period prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of Environment, without any justifiable ground;
2. Where it has violated the standards for designation of education and training institutions under Article 35 (4);
3. Where it has violated this Act or any order issued under this Act.
(2) If an education and training institution designated under Article 35 (2) falls under any of the following cases, the Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration may revoke its designation or order it to fully or partially suspend its business for a given period not exceeding six months: Provided, That if it falls under subparagraph 1, its designation shall be revoked:
1. Where it has obtained its designation by fraudulent or other illegal means;
2. Where it has failed to comply with the orders to take corrective measures under paragraph (1) on at least three occasion a year;
3. Where it has used expenses subsidized under Article 35 (3) for other purposes;
4. Where it no longer meets the standards for designation under Article 35 (4).
[This Article Newly Inserted by Act No. 11905, Jul. 16, 2013]
Article 35-3 (Recovery of Subsidies)
(1) If an education and training institution has used a subsidy granted under Article 35 (3) for other purposes, the Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration shall recover the full amount thereof.
(2) If a person liable to return a subsidy under paragraph (1) fails to return the subsidy, it shall be collected in the same manner as delinquent national or local taxes are collected.
[This Article Newly Inserted by Act No. 11905, Jul. 16, 2013]


CHAPTER XI SUPPLEMENTARY PROVISIONS

Article 36 (Certification, etc. of Meteorological Phenomena)
(1) Any person who intends to obtain certification on or be provided with data about any weather phenomenon shall file an application with the Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration, as prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of Environment. <Amended by Act No. 9771, Jun. 9, 2009>
(2) Matters necessary for procedures for granting certification or providing data about weather phenomena under paragraph (1) and fees therefor shall be prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of Environment. <Amended by Act No. 9771, Jun. 9, 2009>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]
Article 37 (Collection, etc. of Charges for Aviation Weather Information)
(1) The head of an agency that are established as a responsible administrative agency pursuant to Article 4 of the Act on the Establishment and Operation of Responsible Administrative Agencies and provides aviation meteorological services may collect charges for aviation weather information from persons who use aviation weather information: Provided, That airplanes temporarily landing due to unavoidable circumstances, such as a natural disaster, airplanes landing for diplomatic purposes and other cases prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of Environment may be exempt from such charges. <Amended by Act No. 11067, Sep. 30, 2011>
(2) The head of an agency that undertakes aviation meteorological services may engage in any profitable business related to aviation meteorological services, as prescribed by Presidential Decree.
(3) Matters necessary for the collection of charges for aviation weather information under paragraph (1) shall be prescribed by Presidential Decree.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]
Article 38 (Requests for Supply of Data on Earthquakes or other Phenomena)
(1) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration may request a national agency, local government, research institute, or college to furnish him/her with data on observations of earthquakes, tsunamis, or volcanic phenomena.
(2) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration may fully or partially subsidize expenses incurred in supplying data from observations under paragraph (1) within budgetary limits.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]
Article 39 (Protection of Meteorological Facilities)
No one shall destroy any meteorological facility installed and managed by any of the following persons or degrade the utility of such a facility without justifiable grounds:
1. A national agency or a local government;
2. A public institution specified by Presidential Decree;
3. A person to whom the Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration entrusts meteorological services pursuant to Article 44.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]
Article 40 (Hearings)
The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration shall hold a hearing whenever he/she intends to revoke the designation of an education and training institution or to issue an order to fully or partially suspend its business under Article 35-2 (2).
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 11905, Jul. 16, 2013]
Article 41 (Access, etc. to Land or other Property)
(1) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration may, if necessary for meteorological services, authorize public officials under his/her jurisdiction to enter land or waters owned or occupied by third persons (hereinafter referred to "land, etc.") or use such land, etc. for a temporary period.
(2) Any person who intends to enter land, etc. of third persons or use such land for a temporary period pursuant to paragraph (1) shall obtain prior consent of the owners, occupants, or caretakers of such land, etc.: Provided, That the foregoing shall not apply where the domicile or abode of such owner, occupant, or caretaker is unclear or where it is impossible to obtain consent due to any other unavoidable cause or event.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]
Article 42 (Compensation for Loss)
(1) The State shall, if any loss is incurred by access or temporary use of land, etc. under Article 41, compensate the injured party for such loss, applying mutatis mutandis the Act on Acquisition of and Compensation for Land, etc. for Public Works.
(2) As to compensation for loss under paragraph (1), the Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration shall enter into an agreement with the injured party.
(3) If it fails to or is impossible to reach agreement pursuant to paragraph (2), an application for adjudication may be filed with the competent Land Tribunal under the Act on Acquisition of and Compensation for Land, etc. for Public Works within one month.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]
Article 43 (Presentation of Identification Cards)
Every public official who performs his/her duties pursuant to Article 41 shall carry with him/her an identification card certifying his/her authority and produce it to interested parties. <Amended by Act No. 9771, Jun. 9, 2009>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]
Article 44 (Entrustment of Meteorological Services)
(1) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration may, if deemed necessary, entrust a national agency, a local government, or a person specified by Presidential Decree with some meteorological services.
(2) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration may lend meteorological instruments and other equipment as necessary for conducting meteorological services to a person to whom meteorological services are entrusted pursuant to paragraph (1) free of charge, or fully or partially subsidize expenses incurred in the provision of such services within budgetary limits.
(3) Matters necessary for the entrustment of meteorological services under paragraph (1) shall be prescribed by Presidential Decree.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]
Article 45 (Acceptance of Entrustment of Extraordinary Services)
The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration may accept the entrustment of the following services and conduct such services as prescribed by Presidential Decree within the extent that such services do not hinder him/her from conducting his/her services:
1. Observations, surveys, and research on meteorological phenomena, climate, or matters closely related thereto;
2. Extraordinary forecast of meteorological phenomena, climate, or matters closely related thereto and the guidance therefor;
3. Designing, production, testing, repairing, or adjusting of meteorological instruments;
4. Development, surveys, and research on technology for meteorological services or matters closely related thereto;
5. International cooperation, dissemination of knowledge, and education and training for meteorological services or matters closely related thereto.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]
Article 46 (Duty to Submit to Competent Standing Committee of National Assembly)
The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration shall submit a report on results of implementation of an annual execution plan to the competent Standing Committee of the National Assembly during the first half of the following year.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]
Article 47 (Legal Fiction as Public Official in Application of Penal Provisions)
Executives and employees of an education or training institution under Article 35 shall be deemed a public official for the purposes of applying Articles 129 through 132 of the Criminal Act. <Amended by Act No. 9771, Jun. 9, 2009>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]


CHAPTER XII PENAL PROVISIONS

Article 48 (Penal Provisions)
A person who issues a severe weather alert in violation of the main sentence of Article 17 shall be punished by imprisonment with prison labor for not more than three years or by a fine not exceeding ten million won.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]
Article 49 (Penal Provisions)
Any of the following persons shall be punished by imprisonment with prison labor for not more than one year, or by a fine not exceeding five million won:
1. A person who engages in an act aimed at intentionally changing or controlling a meteorological phenomenon in violation of the main sentence of Article 18;
2. Deleted. <by Act No. 9771, Jun. 9, 2009>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]
Article 50 (Joint Penal Provisions)
If the representative of a corporation or the agent, employee, or servant of a corporation or individual commits an offense under Article 48 or 49 in the scope of the affairs of the corporation or individual, not only shall such actor be punished accordingly, but also the corporation or individual shall be punished by a fine prescribed in the applicable Article: Provided, That the foregoing shall not apply where the corporation or individual has not neglected to take reasonable care and supervision in connection with the relevant affairs in order to prevent such offense.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]
Article 51 (Fines for Negligence)
(1) A person who issues a weather forecast in violation of the main sentence of Article 17 shall be punished by a fine for negligence not exceeding one million won.
(2) Fines for negligence under paragraph (1) shall be imposed and collected by the Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration, as prescribed by Presidential Decree.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]


ADDENDA
Article 1 (Enforcement Date)
This Act shall enter into force six months after the date of its promulgation.
Article 2 (Transitional Measures concerning Master Plan)
Any former master plan for meteorological technology established after deliberation by the National Science and Technology Council as at the time this Act enters into force shall be deemed a master plan under the amended provisions of Article 5 (1).
Article 3 (Transitional Measures concerning Weather Business Entities)
Any person whose forecasting business is registered pursuant to former provisions as at the time this Act enters into force shall be deemed a weather business entity registered pursuant to the amended provisions of Article 26.
Article 4 (Transitional Measures concerning Supportive Institutions for Weather Information)
Supportive institutions for weather information designated pursuant to former provisions as at the time this Act enters into force shall be deemed supportive institutions for weather information designated pursuant to the amended provisions of Article 31.
Article 5 (Transitional Measures concerning Administrative Dispositions, etc.)
Dispositions, reports, and other acts made or done in relation to an administrative agency pursuant to former provisions as at the time this Act enters into force shall be deemed dispositions, reports, and other acts made or done in relation to the administrative agency pursuant to this Act.
Article 6 Omitted.
Article 7 (Relationship to other Acts)
A citation of the Weather Service Act or any provision thereof by any other Act or subordinate statute in force as at the time this Act enters into force shall be deemed a citation of this Act or the corresponding provision hereof in lieu of the former provision, if such corresponding provision exists in this Act.


ADDENDA <Act No. 8221, Jan. 3, 2007>
Article 1 (Enforcement Date)
This Act shall enter into force ten months after the date of its promulgation. (Proviso Omitted.)
Articles 2 through 16 Omitted.


ADDENDA <Act No. 8852, Feb. 29, 2008>
Article 1 (Enforcement Date)
This Act shall enter into force on the date of its promulgation. (Proviso Omitted.)
Articles 2 through 7 Omitted.


ADDENDUM <Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008>
This Act shall enter into force on the date of its promulgation: Provided, That the provision stipulating that the registration may be revoked if a person fails to file for an amendment of registration, in violation of the main sentence of Article 26 (2), in the amended provisions of subparagraph 4 of Article 28, shall enter into force three months after the date of its promulgation, and the amended provisions of Article 21 (2) and (3) shall enter into force six months after the date of its promulgation.


ADDENDA <Act No. 9771, Jun. 9, 2009>
Article 1 (Enforcement Date)
This Act shall enter into force six months after the date of its promulgation.
Articles 2 through 8 Omitted.


ADDENDA <Act No. 10445, Mar. 9, 2011>
Article 1 (Enforcement Date)
This Act shall enter into force three months after the date of its promulgation.
Articles 2 through 4 Omitted.


ADDENDUM <Act No. 11067, Sep. 30, 2011>
This Act shall enter into force on the date of its promulgation: Provided, That the amended provisions of Articles 8, 14-2 and 15 (1), Chapter Ⅶ (Articles 25 through 30) and the proviso to Article 37 (1) shall enter into force six months after the date of its promulgation.


ADDENDA <Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013>
Article 1 (Enforcement Date)
(1) This Act shall enter into force on the date of its promulgation.
(2) Omitted.
Articles 2 through 7 Omitted.


ADDENDA <Act No. 11713, Mar. 23, 2013>
Article 1 (Enforcement Date)
This Act shall enter into force on the date of its promulgation.
Articles 2 through 6 Omitted.


ADDENDA <Act No. 11905, Jul. 16, 2013>
Article 1 (Enforcement Date)
This Act shall enter into force on the date of its promulgation: Provided, That the amended provisions of Articles 21-2, 23, 35 (4), and 35-2 shall enter into force six months after the date of its promulgation.
Article 2 (Transitional Measures concerning Administrative Dispositions)
Administrative dispositions against any violation committed before the amended provisions of Article 35-2 enter into force shall be governed by the previous provisions, notwithstanding said amended provisions.